Formation of an electronic nematic phase in interacting fermion systems

We study the formation of an electronic nematic phase characterized by a broken point-group symmetry in
interacting fermion systems within the weak coupling theory. As a function of interaction strength and chemical
potential, the phase transition between the isotropic Fermi liquid and nematic phase is first order at zero
temperature and becomes second order at a finite temperature. The transition is present for all typical, including
quasi-two-dimensional, electronic dispersions on the square lattice and takes place for arbitrarily small interaction
when at van Hove filling, thus suppressing the Lifshitz transition. In connection with the formation of
the nematic phase, we discuss the origin of the first-order transition and competition with other broken
symmetry states.

Igor Khavkine,1 Chung-Hou Chung,1 Vadim Oganesyan,2 and Hae-Young Kee1
1Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7, Canada
2Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA